Root Word of the Day

This page is for ELA students in Mrs. Lee's class to learn and study the meaning of Greek and Latin root words and some of their derivatives.  Each week on Thursday, starting in December, students will take part in an "auction" to bid on how many words they know.  Winners will take their place on the "Champions' Wall" on this blog

amo, amatum- love

1. amateur- (Fr. amator-lover) lover; one who enjoys an activity without doing it professionally
2. amiable- kindly, lovable, good-natured
3. amicable- friendly, peaceable, cordial
4. enamoured- (in-in) charmed, captivated, in love
5. amity- friendship
6. enmity- (in-not + amity) ill will; hostility
7. enemy- hostile, unfriendly person

sauros- lizard

1. dinosaur- (deinos- terrible) terrible lizard
2. tyrannosaurus- (tyrannos- absolute ruler) tyrant lizard
3. allosaurus- (allos- leap) leaping lizard
4. stegosaurus- (stego- roof) lizard with a shell on its back
5. brontosaurus- (brontos- thunder) thunder lizard
6. ankylosaurus- ( ankylos- crooked, bent) lizard with bony plates sticking up from its neck
discipulus- student

1. disciple- a student
2. discipline- teaching; instruction, field of learning (the discipline of social studies)
3. disciplinary- pertaining to correction, ordered control or teaching
4. disciplinarian- one who enforces order

scio, scitum- know

1. science- knowledge which results from study
2. scientific- kind of knowledge gained from careful; study
3. conscience- (con- with, together) knowledge of right and wrong
4. prescience- (prae- before) foreknowledge
5. conscious- sharing knowledge; mentally active or awake
6. omniscience- (omnis- all) all knowing

liber, libri- book

1. library- place where books are kept
2. librarian- one in charge of a library
3. libretto- (Italian- booklet) words to which opera music has been written
4. librettist- one who writes a libretto
5. libel- written accusation

biblos- book

1. Bible- The Book of the Christian religion
2. bibliography- (graph- write) list of books on a particular subject
3. biblioclast- (klastos- broken) one who destroys books
4. biblioklept- (klepto- steal) one who steals books
5. bibliology-(logos- word, study) study of books
6. bibliomania- (mania- madness) craziness about books
7. bibliophile- (philia- love) lover of books
8. bibliophobia- (phobos- fear) fear or dislike of books
9. bibliothetic- (thetos- placed) pertaining to the placement or arrangement of books

dico, dictum - speak, say
1. dictate- speak, command
2. diction- art or manner of speaking
3. dictation- speaking so another may write down the words
4. dictator- one whose word has absolute authority
5. predict- (pre- before) to sat beforehand what will happen
6. benediction- (bene- well) well-spoken words; a blessing
7. contradict- (contra- against) speak against
8. verdict- (verus- true, real) a true saying

scribo, scriptum- write
1. scriptures- sacred writings (Bible, Torah)
2. inscription- (in- in) writing in a book or in stone
3. describe-( de- down) write down
4. proscription-(pro- for) written list of names put up for all to see
5. prescription- (pre- before) something written ahead (doctor's direction to pharmacist) 
6. scribe- one who knows how to write
7. transcribe- (trans- across) transfer speech into writing
8. manuscript- (manus- hand) written by hand
9. script- writing (e.g., the words of a play)

facio, factum- do, make

1. factory- (orium- place for) place for making things
2. manufacture- (manus- hand) make by hand
3. efface- (ex- out, away) do away with
4. deface- (de- down) to "do down", mar. destroy
5. perfect- (per- through) done all the way through
6. magnify- (magna- large) to make large
7. satisfy- (satis- enough) to make enough

verto, versum- turn

1. reverse- (re- back, again) turn back
2. advertise- (ad- to, toward) turn people toward a product
3. universe- (unus- one) stars all turning as one wheel or cosmos
4. university- set of colleges revolving around a central administration
5. controversial- (contra- against) two sides turned against each other
6. conversation- (con- with, together) taking turns in talking together
7. diversity- (dis- separate) turning to separate ways; unlikeness

zoon - animal

1. zoo- a zoological park or collection of animals
2. zoology- (logos- word, study) study of animals
3. protozoon- (protos- first) earliest form of one-celled animal life on earth 
4. cenozoic- (kainos- recent) recent animal period (WE live in this age)
5. mesozoic- (meso- middle) middle animal period
6. paleozoic- (paleo- early, archaic) early animal period (many fossils)
7. proterozoic- (protero- earlier) earlier animal period (few fossils, worms)
8. archeozoic- (arche- beginning) beginning animal period (carbon traces but no fossils)

curro, cursum = run

1. current- ongoing
2. curriculum- study that runs over a period of time
3. occur- (ob- against) run against, happen
4. recur- (re- again) run into again
5. incursion- (in- in, into) a running into; an invasion or attack
6. excursion- (ex- out of) running out; a trip
7. cursive- writing that runs on without lifting pen or pencil
8. cursor- small moving (running) indicator on a computer screen

thermos - heat

1. thermal- relating to heat
2. thermos bottle- insulated bottle which keeps the contents hot or cold
3. thermometer- (metron- measure) device for measuring heat
4. thermotropic- (tropos- turn) turning toward heat
5. thermogenic- (genos- origin) causing or originating (generating) heat
6. thermoplastic- (plastos- shape, mold) can be molded or formed when heated

autos- self
1. autograph- (graph- write) writing the name of oneself
2. automobile-(mobilis- movable) self moving
3. autobiography (bios- life) life story written by oneself
4. autocrat- (kratos- power, strength) power in one person
5. autonomy- (monos-law) being a law to oneself (having independence)
6. automatic- (matos- think) a machine that seems to think for itself; self-acting; self-regulating

pathos- feeling, suffering

1. pathos- dramatic device to cause pity, sympathy or sorrow
2. pathetic- marked by suffering or sorrow
3. pathology- (logos- word, study) study of suffering or disease
4. pathometer- (metron- measure) measures feeling; a lie detector
5. apathy- (a- not) not feeling; lack of feeling
6. antipathy- (anti- against) feeling against
7. sympathy- (syn- together) to feel what another feels
8. telepathy- (tele- far away, distant) knowing how someone far away feels
urbs, urbis- city

1. urban- pertaining to the city
2. suburb- (sub- under, below, near) outlying part of a city; smaller town near a city
3. suburbanite- one who lives in a suburb
4. interurban- (inter- between) between cities
5. urbane- polite; having city manners
6. urbanity- civility; courtesy, politeness
7. urbanites- those who live in a city
polis - city, government
1. metropolis- (mater- mother) "mother city" main city with smaller suburbs around it
2. political- concerning management of a city
3. police- those who keep order in the city
4. polite- having city (civilized) manners
5. policy- course of action adopted in the management of a city
6. politics- the art and science of government
populous- people
1. people- a collection of persons
2. public- general body of people in a community
3. republic-( res- thing) public thing or entity
4. publish- make known to people in general
5. populace- the common people
6. popular- pleasing to people in general
7. population- whole number of people in an area
8. pueblo- (Spanish) people of a village or town
demos = the people, the citizens
1. democracy- (kratos- power) power coming from the people
2. demotic- pertaining to the people; popular
3. demography- (graph- write, draw) charts of information about the people- where they live, etc.
4. demophile- (philia- love) friend of the people
5. demophobe- (phobos- fear) oe who fears the people
6. epidemic- (epi- upon) a plague upon the people; disease spread among the citizens

frater, fratris = brother
1. fraternal- brotherly
2. fraternity- Brotherly association of men
3. fraternize- associate together on friendly or brotherly terms
4. friar- member of a men's religious order (called "Brother")
mater, matris = mother
1. matriarch- (archos [Gr.]- chief) a woman who rules the family
2. maternal- motherly
3. matrix- the ground from which some thing or idea springs
4. matriculate- have one's name entered on the list of students of a school or college
5. alma mater- (alma- nourishing, kind) The school from which one graduates

pater, patris = father
1. patriarch- (archos [Gr.]- chief) chief father of a family or of a society

2. patriotism- love for the fatherland
3. patrician- nobly born person; descendant of the founding fathers of Rome
4. patrimony- (monia- condition) condition or estate inherited from one's fathers
5. patron- one who acts like  father towards another
6. patronymic- (onyma- [Gr.]- name) a father's name adapted and given to his children
magnus = great, large, big
1. magnify- (facio, factum- make, do) make larger
2. magnifier- that which makes greater
3. magnitude- (-tudo- ness) greatness
4. magnate- person of great rank or influence
5. magnificent- great in deed or character; lavish
6. magnanimous- (animus- mind, spirit) great in mind; above waht is low, mean or ungenerous; noble in soul
megas = great, large, big
1. megaphone- (phone- sound) device for making a sound larger (louder)
2. megalith- (lithos- rock) huge rock
3. megalomania- (mania- craze) crazy person with delusions of grandeur or greatness
4. megalophonous- having a big or loud sound or voice
5. mega- in the metric system, a million times: 
               megameter- a million meters
               megatons- a million tons
mikros= small
1. microphone- (phone- sound) device for transmitting a small sound over a distance
2. microbe- (bios- life) tiny form of life
3. microcosm- (cosmos- world) a tiny world
4. microfilm- (filmen- thin skin) tiny film for storing books, records, etc.
5. micrometer- (metron-measure) instrument for measuring small things
6. micron- unit of length 1/1000 of a millimeter
7. microscope- (skopeo- look at) instrument for looking at tiny things
8. microwave- (wafian- wave) tiny electromagnetic wave between 1 and 100 centimeters long

vivo, victum = live

1. vivid- lively, animated, spirited
2. revive- ( re- back, again) come back to life
3. survive-( sur, super- over) to live over or beyond a threat of death
4. vivacity- liveliness, vigor
5. convivial- (con- with, together) relating to feasting together
6. viand- food to support life
7. victual- (pronounced vit'l) food to support life
bios = life
1. biology- (logos- word, study) study of life
2. biography- (graph- write, draw) written life story
3. autobiography- (autos- self) written life story of one's self
4. microbe- (micro- small) tiny form of life
5. amphibian- (amphi- both) creature who can live both on land and in water
6. bionic- life-like
7. biotic- pertaining to life
8. antibiotic- (anti- against) against living forms which invade the body
ars, artis - art, skill
1. art- display or application of skill
2. artist- one who acts or creates with skill
3. artistic- pertaining to a skillful creation
4. artless- without skill, natural, simple and sincere
5. artful- full of, or characterized by skill
6. artificial- (facio, factum- make) made by man; not occurring naturally
7. artillery- (artiller [Fr.]- equip) equipment for wat
8. inert- (in- not) not skilled, inactive, sluggish
9. inertia- state of inactivity; motion which continues unless altered by an external force
techne- art, skill

1. technology- (logos- word, study) study of how to do things
2. technical- pertaining to the art or skill involved in all kinds of work, science, sport, business, profession, mechanical arts
3. technique- expert skill in accomplishing something
4. technician- one who is skilled in details of an art or subject
5. architect- (archi- chief, master) a master builder
6. architecture- art or science of building
inter - between, among, amid

1. international- (natio- nation, race, kindred) between or among nations
2. interject- (jacio, jactum) throw- throw between
3. interaction- (ago, actum- act, perform) discussion or action between or among people
4. intervene- (venio, ventum- come) come between
5. intergalactic- ( galactos- milk) between stars in the Milky Way
6. interlude- (ludus- play) light entertainment in the midst of serious activities; a "break"

para = beside, along

1. parable- (ballein- to throw) to throw a story in for comparison while teaching a lesson or moral
2. parachute- (cadere- to fall) goes along with you as you fall and slows you down
3. parenthesis- (thesis- put, place, position) a statement places beside (or within) the main sentence
4. paragraph- (graph- write or draw) an editing mark beside a page of print to show needed indentation
5. parallel- (allos- other) lying alongside of another line, but not meeting
chronos = time
1. synchronize- (syn- together, same) do at the same time
2. chronometer- (metron- measure) device to measure time
3. chronology- (logos- word, study) relate events in time sequence
4. chronic- over a period of time; "from time to time"
5. chronograph- (graph- write, draw) device to measure and record time
6. chronicle- record of events in time
arbor, arboris = tree

1. arboretum- public garden where trees are cultivated and exhibited
2. Arbor Day- day designated for planting trees- usually in Spring
3. grape arbor- grape vines trained to climb a trellis or open-roof framework
4. arboraceous- full of trees, wooded
5. arboriculture- (cultura- tending) cultivation of trees and shrubs
6. arborvitae- (vita- life) "tree of life", an evergreen tree of the cypress family bearing cones (conifer)

dendron = tree

1. rhododendron- (rhodos- rose, red) evergreen shrub with large flowers
2.  lepidodendron- (lepidos- scale) extinct prehistoric tree with scaly bark
3. dendrophile- (philis- love) lover of trees
4. dendrometer- (metron- measure) instrument for measuring the height and diameter of trees
5. dendrolite- (lithos- stone) petrified fossil or stone
6. dendriform- (forma- shape, form)having the shape of a tre

stella - star

1. stellar- pertaining to a star or stars

2. constellation- (cum- together) group of stars
3. interstellar- (inter- between) between the stars
4. stellate- star-shaped
5. stellascope- (skopeo Gr.- look at) instrument for looking at stars; astronomical telescope
6. stellerid- a star fish
7. stellify- (facio, factum- make) transform a person or thing into a star or constellation
8. Stella- girl's name meaning star
9. Estellita- girl's name meaning "Little Star"

astron- star
1.aster- star-shaped flower
2.astronomer- (onoma- name) one who names the stars
3.asteroid- (eidos- form) a small rocky body orbiting the sun (in the form of a star)
4.astrologer- ( logos- word, study) one who studies the stars
5.astronaut-(nauta- sailor) star sailor
6.disaster-(dis- separation or parting from) separation from the good influence of "friendly stars"
7.astral-pertaining to stars
8.astrodome- covered stadium where sports stars perform

petros- rock, stone
1.petrified- (facio, factum- make, do) made into stone
2.petrifaction- process of making into stone
3.Peter- name which means reliable like a rock
4.petroleum- (oleum, olive olive oil) oil from rocks
5.petroglyph-(glyphein- carve) rock carving
6.petrography-(graph- write, draw) writing about rocks
7.petrous- hard, stone-like rocky

lithos- stone
1.lithograph- (graph- write, draw) picture drawn on stone so that the stone can "draw a picture"
2.monolith- (monos- one, alone) lone stone
3.megalith- (mega- large) large stone
4.lithology- (logos- word, study) study of rocks or stone
5.lithosphere- (sphaira- ball, globe) the rocky crust of the earth
6.lithic-made of or pertaining to stone
7.eolithic- (eo- dawn) earliest stone age
8.paleolithic- (paleo- old, ancient) ancient stone age after eolithic period
9.neolithic- (neo- new) new or late stone age

annus- year
1.annual- yearly
2.anniversary- (verto, versum- turning) celebration marking the turning of a year
3.biannual- (bi-two) occurring twice a year
4.biennial- every two years
5.triannual- (tri- three) three times a year
6.triennial- every three years
7.centennial- (centum- hundred) every hundred years
8.millennial- (mille- thousand) every thousand years
9.perennial- (per- through) through the years
10.annuity- amount of money paid yearly
11.annals- historical events recorded year by year

hypnos- sleep
1.hypnosis- sleep-like state controlled by another
2.hypnotize- put into a sleep-like state or trance
3.hypnology- (logos- word, study) study of sleep
4.hypnotic- tending to induce sleep
5.hypnotherapy- (therapeia- treatment) treatment of a disease by using hypnosis
7.Hypnos-god of sleep in Greek mythology

dormio, dormitum- sleep
1.dormant- sleeping
2.dormitory- place for sleeping
3.dormer window- bedroom window set into a roof
4.dormouse- hibernating mouse
5.dormeuse- railway sleeping car
6. dormitive- something that causes sleep
7.dormition- act of sleeping

terra- land
1.territory- land under control of a government or owner
2.terrace- raised platform of earth
3.terra cotta- (coquo, coctum- cook) "cooked earth" fired clay pottery, tiles, etc. 
4.terrarium- garden in a small glass container
5.terrestrial- pertaining to the earth
6.extraterrestrial- (extra- outside) outside the earth's atmosphere
7.terrier-small dog which hunts for animals that burrow in the earth
8.Mediterranean Sea-(medius-middle) the sea in the middle of the land

geo- earth
1.geography- (graph- write, draw) draw the earth (make maps) and write about it
2.geographer- one who makes maps and writes about the earth
3.geology-(logos- word) study of the earth and its formations
4.geologist- one who studies the formations of the earth's crust; rocks, minerals, oils, etc.
5.geometry- (metron- measure) branch of study on ways to measure the earth

trans- across, over, beyond, through
1.transport- (porto, portatum- carry) carry across
2.transaction- (ago, actum- do, drive) trade, exchange
3.transcript- (scribo, scriptum- write) speech put into writing
4.transfer- (fero, latum- carry) carry across
5.transform- (formo, formatum- form, shape) change over into a different form
6.transplant- (planta- sprout, plant) move a plant
7.transparent- (pareo- appear) appear or be seen through

dia- through, between, across, apart
1.diadem- (desmos- bond) bound across the forehead, a wreath or crown
2.diagnosis- (gnosis- knowledge) thorough knowledge
3.diagonal- (gony- knee) line between two non-adjacent corners in a figure of four or more sides
4.diagram- (graph- write, draw) a cross-section drawing
5.diameter- (metron- measure) measure across
6.diamond- (a-not + damas- tame) hardest substance

luna- moon
1.lunar- of or pertaining to the moon
2.lunatic- mad; affected by the moon
3.lunacy- madness caused by the moon; "moonstruck"
4.lunambulist- (ambulo- ambulatum- walk) one whose sleepwalking is caused by the moon
5.lunarium- instrument showing the phases and motions of the moon
6.interlunar-(inter- between) time between old and new moon when the moon is invisible
7.lunation- 29 1/2 days- a lunar month or the time from one new moon to the next

helios = sun
1.Helios- sun god; also called Apollo or Phaethon
2. heliotrope- (tropos- turning) plant which turns toward the sun
3. helium- light gas used in balloons
4. perihelion-n(peri- around, near) closest point to the sun in earth's orbit
5. aphelion- (apo- away from) furthest point from the sun in earth's orbit
6. helioscope- (skopeo- look) telescope for looking at the sun
7. heliometer- (metron- measure) instrument for measuring the diameter of the sun 
sol- sun to the sun system- the sun with objects which revolve around it
3.solarium- a sun dial; a glass enclosed sun room
4.solaster- (astron- star) a star fish with more than five rays; a sun-star fish
5.parasol- (Italian- parare- to ward off) a light portable sunshade
6.solstice- (sisto, statum- set, cause to stand) stopping or standing still of the sun

bonus- good
1.bonus- something extra good
2.bon bon- (French) beautifully decorated candy; a "goody"
3.bonny- (Scottish) good looking
4.boon- a good deed
5.bounteous- (-ous- full of) plentiful good
6.bounty- plenty or reward
7.bonanza-(Spanish- fair weather, prosperity) rich find in a gold mine

aqua- water
1.aquarium- a pond or tank of water where fish or water plants can live
2.aqueduct- (duco, ductum- lead) a structure for bringing water to where it is needed
3.aquaculture- (cultura- till, cultivate) growing food in water (fish, oysters, seaweed)
4.aquamarine- blue-green color of water
5.aquaplane- (planus- flat surface) surf board
6.aquifer- (fero- carry) a layer under the earth where water flows

hydros- water
1.hydroplane- (planus- flat surface) boat that glides on the surface of the water
2.hydrophobia- (phobos- fear) fear of the water
3.dehydrate- (de- down, away from) take water away
4.hydrogen- (genos- origin) a gas, which when burned, produces water
5.hydrophone-(phone- sound) instrument to "hear" underwater
6.hydrology- (logos- word, study) study of water
7.hydroelectric- (electron- amber*) electricity produced by moving water
{*Look up Thales of Miletus, a Greek philosopher in 600 BC and William Gilbert, an Englishman from the 1500s}

ignis- fire
1.igneous- (ous- full of) pertaining to fire
2.ignite- to set on fire
3.ignition- act of "firing up" or starting an engine; setting anything afire

pyro- fire
1.pyrotechnics- (techne- work, skill) fireworks
2. pyrotechnician- one who is skilled with fireworks
3.pyre- huge bonfire for burning bodies at ancient funerals
4.pyromaniac-(mania- craze) a disturbed person who plays with fire
5.pyrometer-(metron- measure) instrument to measure very hot temperatures
6.empyrean- (em-in) in the heavens- home of the fiery sun
7.pyrite-"fool's gold" common mineral that shines like gold

mille- thousand
1.mile- a thousand paces (1 pace= 2 steps- one with each foot)
2.mill- one thousandth of a dollar
3.millimeter-( metron- measure) one thousandth of a meter
4.millennium- (annus- year) thousand-year period or anniversary
5.millipede- (ped, pedis- foot) thousand-footed "bug"

centum- hundred
1.cent- one hundredth of  dollar
2.century- a set of one hundred
3.centurion- Roman military officer over 100 men
4.centimeter-(metron- measure) one hundredth of a meter
5.centennial- (annus- year) a hundred-year celebration or anniversary
6.percent- (per-through) number of parts in a dollar
7.centipede-(pes,pedis- foot) hundred-footed "bug"
8.centigrade-(gradus-step, degree) temperature scale with one hundred degrees between freezing and boiling

decem- ten
1.December- Tenth month in the old Roman calendar
2.decennial- (annus- year) tenth anniversary celebration
3.decemdentate- (dens- dentis- tooth) having ten teeth
4.decemfoliate- (folium- leaf) having ten leaves
5.decempedal- (pes, pedis- foot) having ten feet
6.decemplicate- (plico, plicarum- fold) tenfold or ten copies

quattor- four
1.quadruped- (pes, pedis- foot) four-footed animal
2.quadricycle- (kyclos- wheel) four-wheeled vehicle
3.quadrilateral- (latus- side) having four sides
4.quadragenarian- person in his or her 40s
5.quaternity- group of four people
6.quatrain- a stanza or verse of poetry four lines long
7.quadrille- a square dance for four couples

tres- three
1.trio- three acting or performing together
2.tricycle- (cycle- wheel) a three-wheeled vehicle
3.tripod- (podos [Gr.]- foot) a three-legged stand for a camera or other instrument
4.triangle-(angulus-corner angle) a figure with three straight sides and three corner angles
5.triennial-(annus- year) every three years
6.triceratops- (keras- horn, tops [Gr.]- face) three-horned face
7.trilobite- (lobus- a rounded division) a prehistoric animal  having three rounded divisions of the body
8.tribe- early Rome was divided into three family social groups or clans called tribes

duo- two
1.duet- music played or sung by two people
2. duplicate- (plico, plicatum- fold) make a second copy
3. dual- two (as in dual purpose)
4. dubious- "of two minds" doubtful
5. duel- fight between two people
6. duplex- two homes in one building
7. duplicity- two-faced; a "double cross"

unus- one
1.unit- one part of a series or whole
2.union- act of making one out of many
3.E pluribus unum- motto of USA. "one out of many" states
4.united- together as one
5.universe- (verto, versum- turn) star galaxy which turns as one entity many colleges joined together to function as one body
7.unicorn- (cornu- horn) mythical horse with one horn on its head
8.unison- (sonus- sound) voices singing or musical instruments playing together the same notes at the same time

corpus, corporis- body
1.corporeal- pertaining to the body
2.corps- military division organized as a body
3.incorporate- to make into a body
4.corporation-legally formed group- a body
5.corpse- dead body
6.corpulence- a lot of body fat
7.corpus- main body of a fund of wealth- estate
8.corpuscle- small part of the body

dens, dentis- tooth
1.dent- tooth-like notch in gears, locks, etc.; a small depression tooth doctor
3.dentate- having a toothed edge (leaves) pertaining to teeth
5.dentifrice- (frico, fricatum- rub) toothpaste
6.denture- set of false teeth
7.indent- set a line of print in from the margin

bracchium- arm
1.brace- two of a kind (one for each arm)
2. embrace- (em- in, into) to take into one's arms
3. bracelet- ornament for t he arm or wrist
4. brachiate- to swing by the arms on bars or tree branches
5. brachiopod- (podos- foot) two-shelled creature with two "arms" inside with which to bring in food
6. bracero- Spanish word for day laborer (with two strong arms)
pes, pedis-
1.pedestal- foot of a column
2.pedestrian- walker- on foot
3.pedal- foot lever
4.peddle, peddler- house-to-house salesperson
5.pedicure- (curo, curatum- care) care for the feet
6.pedometer- (metron- measure) measures distance walking
1.manufacture- (facio, factum- making) make by hand
2.manifest- (festus- hit) to hit by hand; easily perceived
3.manicotti- (manica- sleeve) sleeve-like pasta
4.manuscript- (scribo, scriptum- write) writing, written by hand
5.manumit- (mitto, missum- send) to send forth or release from one's hand

caput, capitis- head top of a column; head, chief or foundation money
2.capitalism- system where "head money" makes money
3.captain- head of a group of soldiers
4.capitulate- put headings on chapters or divisions ina piece of writing
5.cabbage- vegetable "head"

digitus- finger, toe, inch
1.digit- finger, numerals from 0-9, unit of measure the width of a finger (3/4 of an inch)
2.digitalis- the "foxglove" plant from which heart medication is made signals or data expressed series of the digits 0 and 1

4.prestidigitation- (praesto- at hand, prompt) a fast-fingered or sleight of hand performance of magic or card tricks

 jungo, junctum - join, unite, connect
1.join- connect, fasten together
2.joint- place where two points are connected
3.conjunction- a word joining two parts of a sentence
4.disjointed- (dis - separate) separated at the joints
5.junction- point of connection; railway crossing
6.subjugate- (sub- under) to connect under the yoke of power

figo, fixum- fix, fasten, attach
1.fix- fasten or make firm; set in place
2.fixture- a thing fastened in place
3.affix- (ad- to) thing fastened to something; syllable added to a word at either end
4.prefix- (prae-before) letter or syllable added to the beginning of a word
5.suffix- (sub- under) letter or syllable added to the end of a word

cum = with, together
1.cooperate- (operor, operatum- work) work with
2.cognate- (nascor, gnatus- be born) born together; having the same ancestors or family
3.collaborate- (laboro, laboratum- work) work with
4.collect- (lego, lectum- gather) gather together
5.combat- (battuo- fight, beat) fight with
6.commemorate- (memoro, memoratum- remember) remember something together (munio, munitum- build, fortify) group which builds together

pono, positum = lay, put, place
1.pose- position or attitude fixed or established place
3.postage- payment for messages sent from post to post
4.deposit- (de- down, away from) lay away; put aside
5.repose- (re- again, back) lie back, pause, rest
6.depose- put down from a throne or high office
7.impose- (in- in, on, upon) to put upon
8.component- (con- together) put together

jacio, jactum = throw

1.eject- (e, ex- out) throw out
2.interject- (inter- between) throw between
3,object- (ob- against) throw against
4.objection- arguments "thrown against" a situation
5.project- (pro- forward) throw forward
6.projectile- a thing thrown forward (arrow, bullet, rock)
7.reject- (re- back, again) throw back

ad = to, toward, near, next to

1.adequate- (aequus- level, even, flat) even with or equal to
2.adhere- (haereo, haesum- stick to, stay) stick to
3.adjective- (jacio, jactum- throw ) word "thrown at" a noun to modify it
4.admire- (miror, miratum- be amazed, wonder) look at with wonder or amazement
5.admonish- (moneo, monitum- warn) give warning to
6.admit- (mitto, missum- send) send to; allow entrance to a place or to the mind
7.advertise- (verto, versum- turn) turn people to what you are offering

prae = before, in front of

1.predict- (dico, dictum- say) say beforehand, foretell
2.preamble- (ambulo, ambulatum- walk) that which goes before
3.precaution- (caveo, cautum-be on guard) be on guard beforehand
4.precursor-(curro, cursum- run) one who runs ahead
5.prefer-(fero, latum- bear, carry) carry to a forward rank or position
6.prejudice-(judicium- judgment) make judgment beforehand

pro= for, before, forward, in place of

1.profess- (fateor, fassus sum- admit, reveal) to admit that one is and expert
2.professional- one who claims to be an expert
3. problem- (ballerin [Gr.]- throw) anything thrown forward to be worked on, or solved
4. proboscis- (boskein [Gr.]- feed, graze) trunk or snout for grazing
5. prologue- (logos- word, study) words before beginning a play or a book
6. proclaim- (clamo, clamatum- shout) announce, cry out, publish
7. proceed- (cedo, cessurus- move, yield) move forward
8. pronoun-(nomen- name) word that stands for a noun
(I, you, he, she, it, we, they, etc.)

nomen, nominis- name

1.nominate- suggest someone's name for office
2.nomination- act of naming a candidate for office
3.nominal- in name only; not real or actua;
4.nomenclature- (calo, calatum- call) system of names used to classify knowledge; what we call things
5. denomination- (de- down from) names of classes or categories, e.g., religions, money
6.denominator- part of a fraction below the line
7.nom de plume (French) pen name of an author

verbum- word

1.verb- the action word in a sentence
2. proverb-(pro- forward) a wise or profound saying
3. verbal- of, or pertaining to words
4. verbiage- use of too many words, chatter
5. verbose-( osus-full of) wordy, full of words
6. verbatim- word-for-word copy or record
7. verbalize- to express in spoken words 
8. verberium- game in which a word is changed into others by rearranging its letters

logos- word, study

1. logic- reasoning to gain knowledge and wisdom
2. geology- (geo- earth) study of the earth
3. astrology- (astron-star) knowledge from the stars
4. biology- (bio- life) study of physical life
5. zoology- (zoon- animal) study of animals
6. technology-(techne- art, skill) study of how to improve an art or skill
7. anthropology-(anthropos- man) study of mankind
8. psychology-(psyche- soul, life) study of the soul or mental life of people
9. legend- a story to be read

video, visum- see

1.television- (tele- far away) machine for seeing  thigs that are far away
2. videophone- (phone- sound) TV screen for seeing the person you are talking to on the telephone
3. video- picture portion of television
4. evidence- (e, ex- out) out of what one can see
5. advise- (ad- to, toward) look and tell your view
invisible-(in-not) not to be seen

skopeo- look at, inspect, consider, examine

1.scope- all that the eye can see
2. microscope- (mikros- small) device to look at small objects
3. telescope- (tele- distant) device for seeing distant objects
4. periscope- (peri- around) device for seeing around obstacles
5. kaleidoscope- (kalos- beautiful; eidos- form) device for seeing beautiful forms or arrangements of small fragments of glass, etc.

sonus sound

1.sound- vibrations perceived by our ears
2. sonic- relating to what we can hear
3. sonnet- a form of rhyming Italian poetry
4. sonar- device that hears sound underwater
5. sonata- an instrumental musical composition with three or four movements
6. consonant- (con- with) speech sounds made with the lips, tongue, or teeth

phone- sound
1.phonograph-( graph, draw) writing with sound
2. telephone-(tele- far away) sound from far away
3. phonogram-(gramma- letter) written sound
4. euphony- (eu- well, good) good or pleasant sound
5. symphony- (syn- together)  sounds that go together
6. megaphone- (mega- big) device to make sounds BIG
7. microphone- (mikros-small) device to transmit or record small sounds

1.kinetic- relating to movement of bodies
2. kinesiology- (logos- word, study) study of human movement
3. kinescope-(skopeo- look at) a machine which shows pictures of movement (old term for TV)
4. cinema- motion pictures [Greeks had no letter "c". They used "k".
5. cinematographer- motion picture photographer

thesis- put, place, position
1.thesis- a position taken in an argument supported by a set of reasons 
2. theme- An essay or composition on a certain subject with a statement and supporting reasons
3. parenthesis- (para-beside) statement beside or inside a main sentence
4. synthesizer- (syn-together) instrument which puts sounds together like real musical instruments


1.sympathy- (pathos- feeling) to feel with someone else
2. symphony-(phone- sound) sounds that go together
3. synthesis- (thesis- put, place) putting together
4. synthetic-( material made by putting chemicals together
5. synonym-(onoma-name) two words with the same meaning
6. synagogue-(ago-bring) place to bring people together
7. synchronize-(chronos-time) to do things at the same time

phobos- fear

1.phobia- irrational fear
2.agoraphobia- (agora- field) fear of open space
3.hydrophobia- (hydro- water) disease which makes it hard to swallow, thought to be fear of water
4. claustrophobia- (claustrum- lock or bolt) fear of closed places
5. phobophobia- Fear of fear
6. zoophobia- (zoon- animal) fear of animals
7. toxikophobia- (toxicos- poison) fear of poison
8. Phobos- a moon of the planet Mars

philia- love, friendship
1.philosopher- (sophia-wisdom) one who loves wisdom
2. Philadelphia- (adelphos- brother) city of brotherly love

3. philanthropist- (anthropos- man) one who cares about humanity
4. philologist- (logos-word) one who loves words
5. Anglophile- (Angli- English)- one who loves England
6. Francophile- (Francus- France) one who loves France

tropos- turning

1.tropics- two corresponding circles on the celestial sphere where the sun appears to turn after reaching its greatest distance north and south of the equator
2. tropical- the climate of the earth in the tropics
3. phototropic- (photo-light) turning toward light as plants do
4. heliotrope- (helios-sun) a flower named for its tendency to move toward the sun
5. thermotropism- (thermos-heat) turning toward heat (as cats do!)

metron- measure

1.meter- unit of measure
2.geometry- (geo-earth) measurement of the earth
3. optometry-(opsis-sight) measure eyesight
4. symmetry- (sym-same, equal) measuring the same
5. barometer- (baros- weight, pressure) device to measure air pressure
6. thermometer- (thermos- heat) measures heat
7. diameter- (dia- through, across) measuring across
8. centimeter-(cent-hundred) one hundredth of a meter
9.anemometer- (anemos-wind) measures wind speed 

tele- far away, distant
1.television (video, visum- see) seeing distant things
2. telephone- (phone- sound) sound from far away
3. telephoto- (photo- light) light from far away
4. telescope- (skopeo- look at) device for looking at distant objects
5.telepathy- (pathos- feeling) knowing how someone far away is feeling

graph- write or draw
1.photograph- (graph- write, draw) picture drawn by light
2.phonograph- (phono- sound) machine for recording sound
3.telegraph-( tele- distant ) writing from far away
4. lithograph- (lithos- stone) drawing made on stone
5. autograph- (autos- self) to write one's own name
6. hologram- (holos-complete) a three-dimensional photograph of a whole subject

1.photograph- (graph- write, draw) picture drawn by light
2.telephoto- (tele-distant) light from far away
3.photometer- (metron-measure) a device which measures light
4.phototropic-(tropos-turn) turning toward light
5.photosynthesis-(syn-together, thesis-putting) a process by which light helps to "put together" nutrients to make food for plants

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